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交警行政执法自由裁量权监管探析

时间:2018-05-22 来源:未知 所属分类: 行政法答辩 本文字数:4525字
  摘 要
  
  交通警察行政执法,是公民日常生活中最常见的行政执法现象。对于交通警察而言,其在行政方面具备自由裁量权,这是行政管理的重要范畴,与公民的日常生活及行动自由之间的关联变得越来越强。如所周知,行政执法过程中的自由裁量权又是最容易被执法者滥用的权力。同时,我国道路交通安全法律法规在自由裁量的问题上,可以说赋予了公安交通管理部门最大限度的自由裁量余地,如果不强化管理和控制,就可能使得自由裁量权陷入被滥用的状态。
  
  现阶段我国社会发展进入新常态阶段,城市化进程加快趋势明显,人们出行的需求量不断增加,此时交通管制执法的任务量与日俱增。但是在具体的执法过程中,基于道路交通安全管理法律法规的不完善、受经济因素影响、执法监督体系不健全、交通警察个人执法水平不高、交警执法问责机制难以发挥效能等原因,使得我国交警行政自由裁量权存在被滥用的问题,滥用职权、以罚代管、显失公正、考虑不相关因素、拖延超越法定时限和处罚无事实根据的现象随处可见。如果这样的现象长期处于没有管控的状态,就会使得案件中行为主体的合法权益被侵害,继而使得腐败问题不断升级,使得行政公信力不断丧失。
  
  为了规避这样的情况的发生,就需要实现交警行政执法自由裁量权的监督和管理。首先,充分发挥立法法赋予设区市立法权对行政自由裁量权的细化量化作用,对违法行为处罚标准进行量化,细化行政执法程序和方法,从源头上杜绝超越和滥用自由裁量权的现象。其次,严格落实行政经费保障制度是解决问题的关键所在,必须规范收支脱钩程序,推行备用金制度,使得公安机关交通管理工作具备夯实的资金资源。再者,建立完善的公安机关交通管理部门自律机制,驱动交通管理部门的各项工作朝着自我管理,自我约束,自我督查的方向发展,建立科学合理的执法考核评价标准体系以及重大行政自由裁量案件集体审议制度,使得交警执法过程进入全面监督的状态,并且据此建立完善的智能系统,使得公安机关内部督查可以对于实际执法过程实现监督。同时,充分发挥人民法院司法规制作用,以司法审查的维度,实现交警行政自由裁量案件各个节点的有效监督,无论是法律依凭,还是立法目标,亦或是操作内容,再者是执法程序,都应该被纳入其中。最后针对于这样的问题,提出了建设性的意见和建议:树立正确的交通执法价值观、强化业务培训考核、加强职业道德修养、推进便民利民措施,进一步提高交通警察综合执法素质。站在制度和机制角度,实现权力使用行为的管理和控制,将交警行政自由裁量权纳入到法律体系中去,这样可以使得道路交通朝着安全性的方向发展,由此营造的交通法治环境会更加有序,更加安全,更加顺畅。
  
  关键词:交通警察;行政自由裁量权;交通管理。
  
  Abstract.
  
  The administrative law enforcement of traffic police is the most commonadministrative law enforcement phenomenon in the daily life of citizens. For trafficpolicemen, they have discretion in administration, which is an important category ofadministrative management, and is more and more strongly related to citizens' daily lifeand freedom of action. As it is known, the right of discretion in the process ofadministrative law enforcement is the most likely to be abused by the law enforcement.
  
  At the same time, China's road traffic safety laws and regulations on the issue ofdiscretion, it can be said to give the public traffic management department themaximum discretion. If we do not strengthen management and control, it may make theright of discretion into a state of abuse.
  
  At this stage, China's social development has entered a new normal stage. Theacceleration of urbanization process is obvious, and the demand for people's travel isincreasing. The traffic control law enforcement task is increasing. But in the specificlaw enforcement process, the management of road traffic safety laws and regulations arenot perfect, influenced by economic factors, law enforcement and supervision system isnot perfect, the traffic police's law enforcement level is not high, the traffic policeenforcement accountability mechanism to play effectiveness because of abuse problemsmakes our police administrative discretion in order to punish escrow, breach of privilege,injustice, consider the delay related factors, beyond the statutory time limit andpunishment unfounded phenomenon everywhere. If such a phenomenon is not incontrol for a long time, the legitimate rights and interests of the actors in the case willbe infringed, and then the corruption will escalate, which will lead to the loss of thecredibility of the administration.
  
  In order to avoid such a situation, it is necessary to realize the supervision andmanagement of the discretion of the administrative law enforcement of the police. Firstof all, we should give full play to the role of legislation in giving the district legislativepower to the administrative discretion. We should quantify the punishment standard ofillegal activities, refine the procedures and methods of administrative law enforcement,and eliminate the phenomenon of surmounting and abuse of discretion. Secondly,strictly implementing the guarantee system of administrative funds is the key to solvethe problem. We must standardize the decoupling procedures of receipts and paymentsand implement the reserve fund system, so that the traffic management of publicsecurity organs can have solid fund resources. Furthermore, the establishment of publicsecurity traffic management departments to improve the self-discipline mechanism, thedrive of the traffic management department towards self management, self restriction,self supervision and direction, establish the system of law enforcement and evaluationstandards of scientific and reasonable administrative discretion and major cases ofcollective deliberation system, the traffic police enforcement process into the overallsupervision of the state. And based on the intelligent system perfect, the public securityorgans for internal supervision can the process of law enforcement supervision. At thesame time, give full play to the people's Court judicial regulation, judicial review bydimension, to achieve effective supervision of police administrative discretion cases ofeach node, depending on whether it is legal, or legislative goals, or the operation content,moreover is the law enforcement procedures, should be included in the. Finally, we putforward constructive suggestions and suggestions for this kind of problem: setting upthe correct values of traffic enforcement, strengthening business training and assessment,strengthening professional ethics, promoting convenience and benefiting people, andfurther improving the comprehensive quality of law enforcement for traffic policemen.
  
  From the perspective of system and mechanism, management and control of powerusage behavior, the traffic police administrative discretion into the legal system, so thatthe road traffic safety towards the direction of development, thus creating the traffic lawenvironment will be more orderly, more secure, more smooth.
  
  Key words:Traffic police; Administrative discretion; Traffic control.
  
  前言
  
  交通警察行政执法,365bet:是公民日常生活中最为常见的行政执法现象。作为行政执法自由裁量权重要组成部分的交通警察行政自由裁量权,是在2003年《中华人民共和国道路交通安全法》颁布之后,就具备的。在这14年的发展历程中,交通行政管理的重要问题开始呈现出来,那就是:交通警察行政执法自由裁量权的管理失控。交通警察在行使法律法规赋予的行政执法自由裁量权时,经常在法律规定的处罚幅度范围内肆意妄为,存在以人情因素为转移,滥用或者放弃自由裁量权的行使现象。更有甚者,执法人员在具体执法过程几乎不考虑违法人员的各种情况的背景下,就实现对应情节和违法后果的界定,并且在处罚程序上都是以最高处罚为基准来进行,由此导致人执法对象在接受制裁的同时不满情绪日益严重,并引发了大量的行政复议乃至行政诉讼案件。这一做法使得公安交通管理部门的行政执法效率大为降低,影响了行政执法的公正性和统一性。因此,有必要就交通执法过程中的自由裁量问题展开深入的分析和探讨,并且在此方面建立更加有效的预防机制,以保证这种问题不会更加恶化。
  
      目 录
 
 

  
        前言

  一、交通警察行政自由裁量权的分类和具体表现

  (一)自由裁量权的类型
  1.选择何种处罚种类的自由裁量权
  2.处罚幅度内的自由裁量权
  3.情节轻重认定自由裁量权
  4.事实性质认定自由裁量权
  (二)交通警察行政自由裁量权滥用的具体表现。
  1.滥用职权
  2.以罚代管
  3.显失公正
  4.考虑不相关因素
  5.拖延超越法定时限
  6.处罚无事实根据·

  二、交通警察行政自由裁量权滥用的危害及原因分析

  (一)交通警察行政自由裁量权滥用的危害
  1.损害公安交通管理部门和交通警察的形象
  2.导致执法腐败现象产生
  3.损害相对人利益
  4.有损社会稳定·
  5.弱化公民法制观念
  (二)交通警察行政自由裁量权滥用原因分析
  1、法律授权宽泛但缺乏配套细则
  2、执法监督管理不到位
  3、经济利益因素影响处罚权的行使
  4·交通警察个人执法水平不高
  5、交通警察执法问责机制不落实

  三、国外交通警察行政自由裁量权规制的经验借鉴

  (一)美国对交通警察执法的规制
  1·交通警察执法模式
  2、对交通警察执法行为的控制和规范
  (二)英国的行政裁判所制度和行政听证制度
  1、行政裁判所制度
  2、行政听证制度。
  (三)加拿大对交通警察自由裁量的规制
  (四)对我国交通警察自由裁量权规制的启示
  1、细化适用裁量基准的程序规定
  2、借鉴英国裁判所经验完善我国交通违法行为行政复议制度
  3、重视对执法人员的培训
  4、强化社会监督
  5、强调为公众服务的执法意识

  四、规范交通警察行政自由裁量权行使的措施

  (一)细化量化自由裁量标准。
  1、细化执法的程序和内容
  2、量化交通违法行为处罚标准
  (二)完善执法监督机制
  1·加强公安机关内部审查监督
  2.改革完善行政复议制度
  3·增强司法审查力度·
  4·畅通社会监督渠道·
  (三)强化行政经费保障
  1·落实经费保障制度·
  2.严格执行“收支两条线”模式
  3.公开交通警察罚没收入使用情况
  (四)提高交通警察职业综合素质
  1·提高交警执法宗旨意识
  2.强化交警业务培训考核
  3·加强交警职业道德修养
  4·强化案例指引提高执法水平
  参考文献
  申谢
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